Oral contraceptives (the pill) are hormonal pills that are usually taken by women on a daily basis for contraception. They contain either two hormones combined (progestogen and estrogen) or a single hormone (progestogen).
When to start – Usually between the 1st to 5th day of menses.
How to take Pills– Needs to be taken for 21 to 24 days in a month with 4 to 7 days pill free period. It has to be taken daily at the same time each day preferably at night. If one pill is missed then it should be taken as soon as one remembers and the next pill should be taken at the scheduled time. If one misses two pills consecutively then there is a possibility of breakthrough bleeding in between and one should use other methods like condoms to prevent pregnancy in that particular month.
How do Pills act – By suppressing ovulation (preventing the release of egg which normally occurs every month), thickening of cervical mucous, and blocking sperm penetration.
How effective Pills are- 92 to 99 %
USES – mainly for contraception.
- Regularizing periods
- In painful periods
- In heavy menstrual periods
- In PCOD & Endometriosis
- In premenstrual syndrome (PMS) etc.
Common side effects –
- Nausea- Usually it disappears after a few days.
- Breast pain and heaviness
- Breakthrough bleeding
- Weight gain in some cases. But nowadays pills are available which do not increase weight.
- Very rarely, it can lead to serious health risks (e.g. blood clots, heart attack, and stroke). Risks are higher for women over 35 years who smoke. Nowadays as we are using very low-dose pills this risk has become very negligible. Again the risk is much less as compared to the complications which can occur during pregnancy and after delivery.
Long-term non-contraceptive health benefits of using pills:
- Help protect against cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer)
- Help protect against cancer of the ovaries
- Help protect against symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease
- Help protect against ovarian cysts
- Help protect against iron-deficiency anemia
- Reduce menstrual cramps
- Reduce menstrual bleeding problems
- Reduce excess hair on the face or body
- Reduce symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome
- Reduce symptoms of endometriosis
A word of caution– The pill does NOT protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV). To protect against STIs, a male or female condom must be used.
Myths and facts about OCPs-
Myth: Cancer- Pills cause cancers such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, and ovarian cancer.
Fact:-The use of pills is proven to decrease the risk of two gynaecological cancers (ovarian and endometrial i.e. uterine). It is difficult to know the effect of pill use on breast and cervical cancer. The possibly increased risks that have been recorded in some studies are not large enough to outweigh the benefits or to change current practice. Consult the best gynecologist in Indore.
Myth: Pills use leads to the general ill health of women.
Fact: – A woman may experience short-term side effects associated with the use of pills, including changes in bleeding patterns, headaches, and nausea. However such side effects are not a sign of illness and usually stop within the first few months of using pills. For a woman whose side effects persist, different pill formulations can be tried. In women who are otherwise well, pill use may be continued for many years as there are no adverse effects related to long-term use. In fact, there are also long-term non-contraceptive health benefits of using pills as described above.
Myth: Infertility/Return to Fertility: Using pills will cause a long delay in conceiving or prevent them from being able to have children in the future.
Fact: Pills do not cause infertility. There is no evidence that pills delay a woman’s return to fertility after she stops taking them. Women who stop using pills can become pregnant as quickly as women who stop using no hormonal methods.
Myth: Pill Absorption: Belief that pills accumulates in the body and cause diseases and tumours, or get stored in the stomach, ovaries, or uterus and form stones.
Fact: After the pills are swallowed, they dissolve in the digestive system, and the hormones they contain are absorbed into the bloodstream. After they produce their contraceptive effect, the hormones are metabolized in the liver and gut and are then eliminated from the body. They do not accumulate in the body anywhere. Meet the best lady gynecologist in Indore.
Myth: Promiscuity: The pill encourages infidelity, promiscuity, or prostitution in women.
Fact: There is no evidence that pills affect women’s sexual behaviour. The evidence on contraception in general shows that sexual behaviour is unrelated to contraceptive use. In fact, using contraception shows responsible behaviour in order to avoid unintended pregnancy.
Myth: Sexual Desire and Sexual Pleasure: Pill reduces sexual pleasure or interest in sex (loss of libido) or that they cause frigidity in women.
Fact: There is no evidence that pills affect a woman’s sex drive.
Myth: Weight Changes: Pills cause women to gain or lose weight.
Fact: Most women do not gain or lose weight as a result of pill use. A woman’s weight may fluctuate naturally due to changes in age or life circumstances. Because changes in weight are common, many women attribute their natural weight gain or loss to the use of pills. Although a very small number of pill users may report weight change, studies have found that, on average, pills do not affect weight. A few women experience sudden changes in weight when using pills. These changes reverse after they stop taking pills.
Myth: The body needs a break from OCPs at least once a year.
Fact: On the contrary, it may increase the risk of unwanted pregnancy.
Myth: There is no need to take the pill at the same time daily.
Fact: The pill has to be taken at the same time daily for Maximum effectiveness Decrease the chances of side effects e.g. bleeding between periods.
Myth: In case of bleeding/spotting between periods, one must stop using the pill.
Fact: This is temporary and has no cause to worry and one should not stop using pills.